“If a machine is expected to be infallible, it cannot also be intelligent.” – Alan Turing

If a non-trivially complex organisational system of any kind or scale is to be considered (even notionally) as complete or entirely self-consistent, it can not also be adaptive, flexible and resilient. Complicated versus complex, closed-systems versus open-systems, command and control versus distributed decision-making/processing, and linear (mechanistic) forecasting versus statistical (indeed – organic) probabilities. The antinomy of Turing’s recursive proof of undecidability (i.e. the Halting Problem) provides much food for thought.

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